We’ve all had to come to terms with the fact that we’re in the midst of a crypto winter, which is when prices fall then stay low for an extended period of time. For those who are wondering if now is the right time to find a career in the Web3/crypto space, or how you can be better prepared for weathering the volatility, worry not! Here’s what some experts in the space have to say, courtesy of information taken from our latest webinar, ‘Shifting Careers Into The Crypto/Web3 Space’.

Our panel of speakers comprised Web3Auth’s Head of Product Design, Sinlin Yeo, as well as Bybit’s Product Marketing Lead, Z Wan. Right off the bat, they gave their personal experience on what it’s like to work in a conventional company vs one in the Web3/crypto space, so that attendees could have a general idea first. 

“The biggest difference between Web2 and Web3 companies would be the pace they move at. For example, at one point, everyone was talking about NFTs, and now they’re talking about dynamic NFTs (this type has a fluid smart contract that contains characters and data allowing it to evolve based on input from the external environment)! There’s a lot of uncertainty in Web3; you don’t know when something might suddenly become obsolete, and there’s a bunch of new terms and tech you’re dealing with, so you need to do your due diligence,” explained Yeo.

Read more on what the NFT space is about, here!

Wan agreed with her as he stated, “The premise of decentralisation is that it makes information change happen faster than ever. Think of it like picking up and learning a new sports activity; your body and muscles don’t know what’s happening for the first few months, so you’ve just got to get used to it and figure it out quickly as you go along. The same goes for wanting to first step foot into the Web3/crypto space; it’s going to be confusing and scary in the beginning, but you just need to persevere and keep on learning.”

When it comes to talking about the salary, both laughed as they agreed it was the ‘million dollar question’ for these industries. Wan opined that it was one of the most lucrative spaces for quite awhile until recently (before the infamous crypto crash), but there are still companies which are hiring. “The big companies are still very willing to pay more in order to get the top talent, with some offering about a 30-40% premium, depending on your job scope. Whatever the regular space does, the Web3 space will try to follow, but give a little additional premium! However, from the small to mid-sized companies’ perspective, they’ll try to give you tokens and/or equities (both of which are long-term incentives), instead of cash premiums.”

“In the Web3 industry, especially when it comes to developers, people are willing to pay up to US$500,000/year, but this applies for the experienced and skilled ones (about 5 years of experience), because they’re high in demand and low in supply! For smaller companies, they’ll usually state the salary range, which is less competitive, but they’ll pair it with equity as well. Candidates outside of the industry can still find a well-paying job as it’s open to them (even without experience), as long as they have the interest to learn and grow. It’s all about how much initiative you show, plus the curiosity and drive you have to prove yourself,” quipped Yeo.

Find out what Web3 is about, and why it’s here to stay!

Asked about whether it’s still advisable for people to make their first foray into these industries, Yeo said that there’s really no “good advice” for people who want to try. “I believe it has to come from their own interests, that’s where they can try to find a match in what they're looking for, career-wise. By telling people to follow their passions, that’s more of a better fit, rather than just advising people to come onboard now.”

Wan echoed her sentiments: “It's all down to the people who choose to do what makes them happy. If you don’t like something, it doesn’t matter how much money they pay you, it’s going to end with you discontented and complaining. I’m a big advocate of mental health, and if the Web3/crypto industries aren’t up your alley, all the money you get won’t help you pay for the medical bills coming out. Only make the decision to join if you see this as a fun, exciting, and “sexy” industry to be committed to!”

The experts also gave their tips on personal branding,resume readiness, and preparing for interviews. Yeo states that storytelling through one’s achievements would make a bigger impact in an interview. “Instead of just looking for a job, why not also attend hackathons or showcase your projects, so that you’re actually walking the talk. There’s no need to list down how many professional certifications you have, if you’re unable to come up with the proof and/or walk the interviewer through the process of a particular project. The impact you’ve made with your former companies (especially if it’s a competitor!), or your previous experience and the skill sets necessary for the role is what’s going to set you apart. Bonus points if you’re able to blend in with the startup culture, because there’s a lot of uncertainty in terms of complex problems that need to be solved, in addition to being outspoken enough to defend your ideas/point of view.”

Check out a different type of resume called an “on-chain”.

From a big company’s perspective, Wan had this to share: “We’re really looking for people who are ready to roll up their sleeves and have the excitement to learn new things along the way. Bring the energy, commitment, and curiosity to try something new, and you’re instantly a cut above the other candidates. How you can reflect those soft skills on your resume is to include all the side projects that you’ve done/tried, professional courses relevant to this field that you’ve taken, or show that you’ve attended conferences and done all the necessary networking. It’s better to come to me with a narrative that you’ve already tried to learn as much as you can about Web3/crypto, and then during your trial-and-error lessons you discovered you wanted to specialise in this space. By telling me that story and relating it to how Bybit can help you, and what you have to offer, this shows that you came prepared. It’s also a sign that you know what you want to do (instead of someone who needs people to tell you what to do), you’re proactive, and also a problem solver. It’s really alright if you don’t have a college degree!”

Wrapping up the session, Yeo had this piece of advice to offer: “No one is ever truly ready for anything, it’s important to just start where you are. Even if you feel you aren’t up for interviews, just do it so that you can learn from the experience, and constantly improve along the way. Don’t forget to ask for feedback in any form, to get yourself more ready!”

Wan, too, had some advice for hopeful candidates wanting to enter the Web3/crypto space and make their mark: “These are such exciting and innovative times, so remember to learn as much as you can, find out exactly what you want, and also understand what the market wants. Hopefully, you continue to feel excited and passionate about joining this industry!”

You can watch the entire webinar below:

Heads up, folks: Web3 is not going to happen in 20 years, it’s already in process! Markets are evolving at a more rapid pace than before, which means that Web3 will be upon us sooner than you think. But for those of you who are still asking what this term means, let’s do a quick run-through, courtesy of information taken from our latest webinar, ‘Tech Talk With George Wong: Start A Career In Web3’.

In the first stages of the internet (also known as Web 1.0), communication was very much a one-way street. People could only use the ‘Search’ bar to get information, or send and receive emails, thus labelling it the “read only” era. Next up, was Web 2.0, where it evolved into the two-way communication that we all know today. It not only allowed us to search for information, but to interact with one another, and with content creators too. The thing about this version though, is that all our data (yes even the sensitive ones) are stored and controlled by mega corporations.

Enter the new evolution that many are now wondering about: Web 3.0! Compared to its predecessors, this version isn’t controlled by only a handful of people; it’s controlled by all the users (think of it like a democracy) simultaneously. As such, this version has two main advantages: No intermediaries, and decentralisation.

The former means that Web3 cuts out all forms of middlemen to allow for cheaper and faster options, allowing users to access anything and anywhere directly – slowly replacing all the companies which have traditionally relied on go-betweens. For example, if you remove Netflix, which provides paid digital streaming services, then you’d be able to freely watch movies and TV series to your heart’s content.

As for the latter, the aim is for the online ecosystem to be consolidated into a single platform based on blockchain technology, thus allowing for its users to have complete control over their own data – without the interference from mega corporations. It’ll be much easier for users to just plug into the network, provide any form of value, and then plug right back out.

Read more about Web3 here!

George then went on to touch on the ‘metaverse’, which is defined as a “digital reality that combines aspects of social media, online gaming, augmented reality, virtual reality, and cryptocurrencies to allow users to interact virtually”, according to Investopedia.

He is of the opinion that the types of jobs now readily available and highly in demand in the market are rapidly evolving. For example, 20 years ago, the idea of playing online games for a living would never have been viable; however, we’re now able to see online gamers who have actual production teams dedicated to setting up livestreaming sessions for them, and they’re able to earn massive amounts of money. As such, the perception of society is now shifting towards these more unconventional careers.

He then went on to advise participants on how to get a job and establish their own value in Web3, “You don’t need to change what it is that you do or are good at; you just need to upskill and upgrade yourself to make the transition. Be open-minded and find ways to showcase your skills, especially if you know what Web3, metaverse, and cryptocurrency are.”

“For example, if you’re good at marketing, then the best thing you can do is to learn how to market effectively in that space, by getting involved in the communities as well as learning the lingo and keywords, which are very important and often overlooked!”

Some of the high-demand jobs in Web3 are: Developers, marketers (much-needed but requires those who are well-versed in the Web3 and metaverse spaces), as well as social media management (specific ones like Discord).

To all those reading this: The best time to enter Web3 is NOW, when everything is slowly growing and developing. This is because people are more open and willing to accept newcomers, as there's a massive shortage of people well-versed inside, so you’d be able to have a relatively easy entry and make your mark. You can watch the entire webinar below:

Before we can get into NFTs and how you can make a career out of it, we first have to understand the technology behind NFTs and the space they operate in: The crypto space. If it wasn’t already a dead giveaway, the crypto space makes use of cryptocurrency in order to function. But what exactly are 'cryptocurrencies'? Fret not, we’ve got you covered. 

Cryptocurrency (or more commonly referred to as 'crypto') is any form of digital currency which exists virtually and makes use of cryptography to process and validate transactions.

The function of cryptocurrencies are widely the same as regular fiat money, with the main distinguishing feature being a lack of a central issuer or regulating authority (such as a bank), rendering them theoretically immune to government interference or manipulation. Cryptocurrencies use a decentralised peer-to-peer system that can enable anyone anywhere to send and receive payments. 

As mentioned above, cryptocurrencies do not exist physically in the real world like regular cash money, and are stored in digital wallets. All crypto payments exist solely as digital entries to a public online database, or ledger known as the 'blockchain'. 

Cryptocurrency received its name because it uses a type of encryption called 'cryptography' to verify transactions. In layman's terms, advanced coding is involved in storing and transmitting cryptocurrency data between wallets and ledgers, with the sole aim of providing security and safety. 

So what makes this form of currency so popular these days? Well, the answer to that is simple: Cryptocurrency transactions are cheaper and faster, that don't collapse at a single point of failure. Since cryptocurrencies don't use a third-party intermediary such as a bank, the regular processing fees and transaction times don't apply.

The public ledger also effectively eliminates the possibility of a single point of failure, such as a large bank, setting off a cascade of crises around the world. Case in point is the one that was triggered in 2008 by the failure of financial institutions in the United States.

Now that we’ve briefly explained what cryptocurrencies are and how they work, let’s move on to the actual reason you clicked on this article: NFTs! If your head's still spinning from the crypto explanation, we suggest you take a seat, strap yourself in, and brace for impact because we’re about to have a head-on crash course in NFTs.

What Are NFTs?

NFT stands for non-fungible token. Wait. Fungible? What does that even mean? Fungible is just a fancy way of saying an item cannot be replaced with another identical item. So, in other words, an NFT is a token that is unique and not interchangeable.

This kind of token is a bit like cryptocurrencies, with the difference being you can trade crypto and have more of the same thing, but each and every NFT is unique. Any non-fungible entity does not have any other identical equivalent with which you can exchange it.

Take the example of an album by a famous music artist. Even though there could be millions of copies of the album, they cannot be exchanged with the artist’s original recording. Which brings us to the topic of proving which one is original, to begin with. That’s where the blockchain technology we mentioned earlier comes into play. Much like cryptocurrencies, the issuing and trading of all NFTs are recorded and stored in a public ledger, so the original can always be traced and identified. 

The ability to verify the authenticity and help prevent piracy is what makes NFTs so special. To put it simply, they act as digital copyrights on commodities. The notion that you can assign value to a non-tangible asset (be it digital art, a digital meme, or even a tweet) is what's driving the value of NFTs. With the added piracy protection has meant that content creators such as artists, musicians, or even developers can now auction their products directly to the consumer without having to worry about their work being pirated and distributed illegally. NFTs are being touted as the future of digital transactions.

4 Tips On How To Build A Career In The NFT Space

Now that you know what NFTs are, it’s time to find out how you could build a career for yourself in the space. We’ve put together 4 simple tips that will help point you in the right direction.

1) Find out who the big players are

The NFT space is still relatively new, so it's important for you to pay close attention to who some of the big players are in the space. Big players make big moves, and you could definitely benefit from following their lead.

2) Take some time to learn how others in the space became successful

Pay attention to the original pioneers in the space, and see how they got started. They definitely weren’t big players when they started, but they certainly did something right to get where they are now. Use that as your own blueprint for success.

3) Don’t stand still, keep moving forward

The NFT space is constantly evolving, so if you’re not keeping up with the latest developments, you’re going to be left behind. Don’t just sit around and wait, research and monitor what others are doing, and see how the market adapts and responds to it.

4) Research, research, and more research!

At this current point in time, there are very few people who can be considered experts in the NFT space. It'd be beneficial for you to learn as much as you can, and establish yourself as an expert in the field. When everyone else wants to hop on the bandwagon a little way down the line, people and companies will be looking for people like YOU to guide them in the NFT space, and you can make a pretty penny as a consultant!

6 Highly Sought After Skills In The NFT Space

A great way to build your career in the NFT space is by acquiring skills that are in high demand. We’ve listed 6 must-have skillsets below for you to succeed in the NFT space.

1) Solidity engineer

Ethereum is the platform of choice when it comes to around 90% of NFTs, which means NFT companies need people who are fluent in the programming language behind Ethereum. Yup, you guessed it: Solidity!

2) Artists
Mike Winkelmann, the digital artist known as Beeple, sold an NFT of his work (a collage titled 'Everydays: The First 5000 Days') for USD69 million in March 2021.

Most NFTs currently on sale are some form of art, and that requires an artist to design the various assets, before they are turned into NFTs. While most of what we see on sale are graphic art, that's slowly changing with other innovative offerings such as sounds, music, and even generative art that is entirely programmed. Any art which can be digitised can be turned into an NFT and sold.

3) Community manager

While most people see NFTs as just art, the communities built around it are stronger than the actual art itself. Some NFTs are valued at thousands of dollars just for the communities that go along with it. Skilled managers who are able to establish and grow a good community, knowing that it's essential towards building the brand, are highly sought after by NFT companies.

4) Web 3.0 designers

Web 3.0 (also known as 'Web3') has its own unique set of challenges, and more UI/UX designers who are native to this space are needed to simplify the information, where it’s easily digestible and intuitive for the end-user. Blockchains are complicated and consumer-friendly applications are needed in order for the space to become more widely adopted.

5) Game development

Game development is quickly becoming a new avenue in the NFT industry, as projects are looking to become more than just art. Traditional game companies such as Ubisoft are also looking to get into the NFT space, so it won’t be long before other giants follow suit. When that happens, they’re going to be looking for NFT game developers who are able to build blockchain games that appeal to mainstream gamers.

6) Marketing

As you probably already know, there's a lot of hype in the NFT space, which makes marketing an integral component of any NFT project. Just like any other industry out there, good marketing helps your business (or in this case, project) get more people excited and willing to invest. Some NFT marketing responsibilities include organising Twitter Spaces, partnering with other NFT projects, managing White Lists, and building organic hype.

Better Learn When To SODL, As That's The Key To HODL!

For the uninitiated, SODL and HODL aren't intentional typos (although it did start out that way); they're actually unique jargon from the cryptocurrency market! The former stands for sell, and the latter stands for hold, much like how you'd see in the stock markets.

The NFT market is still relatively new and would go through different stages of development until it finally stabilises and settles. The same can be said for your career development in the NFT space. While immediate success is highly unlikely, you need to keep going on to find suitable prospects for building both your career as well as fluency in NFTs. Knowledge and practice can set you apart from the competition when it comes to jobs in the NFT space. 

With that being said, it's also important to be careful when entering such a new and volatile space. Much like in every field, you need to be well informed and cautious so you can avoid becoming a victim of a crypto or NFT scam. Always do your research, and make sure to always store your cryptocurrency in a secure crypto wallet.

Finally, it's important to understand that the crypto and NFT spaces are still in their early stages, so there'll be volatility and you should be prepared to endure some ups and downs.


Ever wondered how you could easily swipe left or right on Tinder to like or pass on someone? And have you seen how professional and clean Airbnb’s app looks? These are all the works of UX and UI designers; they're essential for anyone looking to establish their place in the digital world.

From apps to websites, these two designs go hand-in-hand to give you a superior product that everyone enjoys using. Read on, as we’ll be diving into the world of UX and UI and showing you some important designer titles you should learn about.

What Is UI And UX?

We’ll kick things off with UI; this stands for user interface, and is basically how users react with a particular device, app, or even website. 

So, when designing a user interface, you wouldn’t only want to create something pretty, but something easy to use as well. 

UI design refers to graphical user interfaces and other forms of interface design.

Think about the 'pause' and 'play' buttons on YouTube. That’s one example of a user interface design. The button to click 'send' for your email is another example. A good UI is one that allows users to perform their intended tasks with ease and simplicity, yet is still pleasing to the eye.

“UX” stands for user experience, and it basically explains itself – it's the experience the user has when interacting with a device, app or website.

According to the Nielsen Norman Group, 'user experience' includes all aspects of the interaction between the end-user and its products, the company behind it, and other aftermarket services provided. ISO 9241-210, defines user experience as "a person's perceptions and responses that result from the use or anticipated use of a product, system or service." 

This would cover a person’s perceptions and responses resulting from the use of the product. UX designers are in charge of determining how the user interface operates.

So, while designing a UI, it is always prudent to keep UX in mind as well. If it works well and feels seamless, the user will enjoy the experience, which is what counts.

Imagine pressing your snap button on your camera but instead of taking a picture, it starts recording a video. This means that the interface was designed poorly in terms of functionality. 

From the explanations above, it's easy to get the two mixed together. You would think that if it's designed beautifully or neatly it would function the same way, right? Actually, it’s a little more complicated than that.

Difference Between UX And UI Designs

UXUI
UX designs use tools to create wire maps and frameworks. Software like Figma and InVision will be used.UI designs are mostly visual and graphic, so expect Sketch, Adobe and Origami Studio to be among the ‘must-use 'tools.
UX designers require a lot of user research input to determine the best flow for the product.UI designs must be visually pleasing, enticing and give users a ‘feel good’ experience.
UX requires logic to create functioning products.UI requires creativity to create amazing looking products.
The end product of a UX design is for programmers to implement. Coding is required here.The end product for UI is for the customer/client. Usually for the front end.

Based on the table above, it's clear that a UI designer focuses more on the visual aspect of the interface, as opposed to the UX design. One is to look good, whilst the other allows you to use it with ease. 

As Don Norman and Jacob Nielson so succinctly put it, "It’s important to distinguish the total user experience from the user interface, even though the UI is obviously an extremely important part of the design. As an example, consider a website with movie reviews. Even if the UI for finding a film is perfect, the UX will be poor for a user who wants information about a small independent release if the underlying database only contains movies from the major studios."

In the grand scheme of things, you need mastery in both fields to actually develop an eye-catching app, programme, or system. We’ve listed some of the most popular UX and UI job titles below for you to read and learn about. Who knows, there might be something worth pursuing yourself!

Top UX Roles

1) UX Designer

The UX process has many stages, but a UX designer is not expected to be a specialist in any one function. In other words, UX designers are expected to embody the principles behind the saying, “a jack of all trades, a master of none.”

UX designer duties include:

2) UX Architects

The UX Architect develops the structure and flow of a digital product (website, app, software, etc) so that users will enjoy using them. They conduct research and interviews, take that information and transmutes it into wireframes and sitemaps which will then be used to guide the final design of the product.

3) UX Writers

UX writers create the written content to be used in the app, programme or software. They create any worded content for users to read and interact at the end-stage. A good example would be the ‘X’ button on your internet tab. Press it and the tab closes. In addition to that, the UX writer creates content meant for the product, be it informational, humour, or hubris. 

Top UI Roles

4) UI Designer

The UI Designer takes the groundwork done by the UX designer and implements it into the design of the product. If it’s a webpage, the UI designer creates the image of the page whilst incorporating the functions done by the UX designer. 

Things like the colour scheme and even the amount of information to be placed in a specific part of the software or app usually fall under the responsibilities of the UI designer. Most major companies already have a brand identity, colour scheme, and style that the UI designer would have to abide by when making a product for said company.  

Essentially, UI designers are graphic designers. They prioritise the look and aesthetics of the product above all else. It's their duty to make the interface eye-catching, stimulating and inviting to the user. 

They also have to make sure symmetry and unity of the design be present from start to end of the product. Combined with the work of the UX designer, and you’ll get a beautiful product that’s seamless to use as well. 

A good example of such a product is Pinterest. Being one of the card-styled design pioneers, Pinterest enhanced its product with the ‘waterfall effect’ to give users that silky smooth experience. Pinterest further enhances the perception of ‘click ability’ by giving each card a shade whenever the user hovers over it with the mouse. Smart visual effect!

5) UI Engineer

UI engineers work the coding part of the designs intended to be used in the product. This is usually for front end website developers. Anything in software requires code; the UI engineers handle that part. They maintain the site, clear up any bugs and upgrade the site whenever necessary or as dictated by the company. They also make sure the front end is, from a user standpoint, visually pleasing and well-functioning. 

UX Or UI, Which Is Right For You?

As we’ve mentioned earlier, if you want to make a good digital solution, you need a good mix of UI and UX to attract and keep users to your product. There are some interchangeable skills for the roles we mentioned above, but it's clear to note from the differences table, there are some specific software, techniques, and skills required for each respective field. 

Mastering a field in either type is a great career prospect in 2022, as a lot of digital solutions providers are looking for individuals to enhance their product(s), making these titles we mentioned above highly in demand.

Ideally, you want to have a base skillset in one field and have some in-depth knowledge in the other. This will allow you to be able to undertake full projects or give you an idea of what needs to be done for any future products you want to conceptualise. 

Now, if you're starting to feel like it's time to dip your toes into this field, check out this UI/UX designer's resume first. This template may also help you produce a fantastic CV for your next job application.


The Internet is not what it used to be in the 1990s and early 2000s. If you had the opportunity to use the service back then, you probably remember the sound of the dial-up connection attempting to link to the internet. Classic, right?

Going on search engines such as Yahoo and MSN at the time would not yield as much information as it does today. Mind you, people can now look up how to write that perfect thank you email after an interview!

Web technology has certainly evolved in so many ways. There’s always something new to discover on the internet, and a plethora of mobile applications have also been developed (with more being created every day). You could say that technology has made our life much easier and more convenient.

Let's take a look at some web history to see where it all began:

1) Web1 (or Web 1.0)

This was the earliest version of the Internet, which was regarded as “read-only” and lasted from 1989 to 2005. It has little to no interaction, where users were passive and what most people were doing at the beginning was exchanging and forwarding emails.

However, it was also the beginning of digitalised communication. Remember those chat rooms you used to visit on MSN, Yahoo, and even mIRC? (surely you recall "a/s/l") That's what it's all about. It was the "read/write" function that allowed users to chat and interact with one another.

2) Web2 (or Web 2.0)

Then came this version, where user-generated content was all the rage, and we're still using it today! The Internet and the World Wide Web evolved into more than just a source of information, allowing users to interact with content creators, and with one another. The evolution brought social media platforms, video sharing sites, blogs, podcasts, and the list goes on.

When Web2.0 features were introduced, this technology saw an increase in content from 250,000 sites in 1996 to a whopping 80 million sites. Hence, any internet user today has the potential to become a content creator. This is also supported by the invention of the "cloud", which stores the collective intelligence of published and user-generated content. Users can create their content for the rest of the world to access without needing to know much about publishing or web design.

Almost any type of information resource and service can now be found on the Internet. The question now is, "Where do we go from here?" The Web has already been upgraded numerous times to keep up with the fast-paced world. Banking activities, social interactions, and even grocery shopping are now all at our fingertips.

We are, believe it or not, in the process of transitioning to Web3, a new level of internet access and connectivity that’s expected to be more intelligent and efficient. With all the hype surrounding this upcoming web technology, you don't want to miss out on learning how it will benefit you, and seeing some examples of Web3 in action.

What Do You Need To Know About Web3 (Originally Web 3.0)?

First off, we’ll start with: "What is Web3?"

According to Investopedia, “Web3 represents the next iteration or phase of the evolution of the web/Internet, and potentially could be as disruptive and represent as big a paradigm shift as Web 2.0 did. Web3 is built upon the core concepts of decentralisation, openness, and greater user utility.”

What this practically means is that Web 3 is a technological upgrade that intends to shift away from the centralised Web 2.0. Why? Because the majority of online activities are currently taking place on closed platforms (where users’ data are being stored) that are owned by corporations such as Google, Facebook, Youtube, Amazon, and many others, in addition to being controlled by governmental regulations.

Web 3 is emerging to address the unfair dominance and lack of personal privacy. The new Internet aims to decentralise the online ecosystem into a single platform based on blockchain technology, giving users control over their data without being attached to corporations. No wonder it seems like the transition towards Web 3.0 crosses technological precedence!

When interviewed by Wired, Gavin Wood (the man who coined the term Web3.0 in 2014, pictured below) stated that the fundamental issue as societies become larger and less defined is that there’s "now a weird kind of brand reputation thing" that expands globally. He went on to say that Internet users form powerful, albeit regulated, organisations.

Regulations for a wide range of industries, particularly those that are relatively new, are evolving much more slowly in Web 2.0, as regulatory bodies' work has yet to catch up with the advancement of the various industries. Hence, according to Wood, the centralised model of Web 2 is a broken one.

In terms of how the Web 3 world might look, he explained that “the initial breed of Web 3 applications will probably be mostly small iterations on Web 2.0 applications. But one thing that Web 3 brings that Web 2.0 cannot easily service is financial obligations or economically strong applications.”

With Web 3, industries take on the role of regulators. Wood defined Web 3 as "less trust, more truth", implying that rather than simply trusting that one company will not be able to decrypt users' private messages, it’s preferable to know for certain that they'll not be able to do so. As a result of this need for openness and transparency, the concept of decentralising the Internet and its services arose.

What’s The Difference Between A Centralised And A Decentralised Web?

Let’s compare the operations of centralised and decentralised networks. Currently, we're still in the Web2 era, which refers to the Internet that we are all familiar with: One that provides services in exchange for your data (be it location, demographic, or bank details).

On the other hand, the invention of Web3, which uses blockchain technology (among other types of technologies), allows users to participate without having their data monetised for use by regulators or providers.

In terms of censorship, there are major differences. Take, for example, Twitter. Currently, Twitter as a corporation has the authority to censor any account or tweet; however, with a Web3 app, tweets are subject to less to no censorship because the control to do so is decentralised.

Furthermore, payments for certain types of work on Web2 may fail due to a lack of personal data or other issues, whereas in a Web3 payment application, no personal data is required, and no type of payment is preventable. It certainly makes Web3 sound more like a world web of freedom.

Nevertheless, there are advantages and limitations to both forms of digitalised networks. The table below summarises the points elaborated, as well as other notable comparisons between centralised and decentralised technologies:

CentralisedDecentralised
Users' data becomes trading material in the presence of a central regulator.Users can keep personal information safe when using the Internet and its services.
Censorship is regulated by a central authority – restricting parts of the network from interacting with one another.Information gets sent out across the network as censorship is reduced (perhaps none at all).
Higher performance with less computational resources, resulting in easier implementation.Lower performance due to expanded computational resources, making implementation more complex.
Conflicting data is referred to as the central authority for ‘truth’.Resolving conflicts about the state of data would require a usually complex protocol.
Single point of failure as it can simply be brought down by an attack on the central authority.No single point of failure considering the network is still operational even when the majority of stakeholders are attacked.
Participation in the network is controlled by a central authority.Anyone and everyone can participate as there are no “gatekeepers”.
Adapted from ethereum.com

What Are The Benefits And Limitations Of Web3?

When it comes to technology, there'll always be benefits and drawbacks to using it. The same goes for Web 1 and Web2. That’s why we constantly see upgrades and advancements to create a better version of the previous one. It will come as no surprise if, ten years from now, we are already comparing Web4 and Web5!

One of the most appealing aspects of Web3 is that it enables users to generate income, collect assets, and claim ownership of the content created on the web, whether digitalised or simply added to the Web. This has been the more recent applications of Web3 with non-fungible tokens (NFTs) and the metaverse – all of which are virtual products. Because the coin/token is digitalised, we can easily refer to it as Web3 crypto.

On the downside, according to Ethereum – one of Web3's pioneering developers – limitations include slower transactions because they require miners to process, in addition to being transmitted across the network. Issues may also arise in the implementation of Web 3.0 as cybercrime grows and evolves, necessitating enhanced cyber security.

More information about Web3's benefits and limitations can be found in the table below:

AdvantagesLimitations
Users can generate income through their digital, virtual content. The transaction is carried out online with non-fungible tokens (NFTs).A mash-up of technologies such as blockchain, machine learning, and AI – requiring upgrades to device specifications and existing sites.
Anyone and everyone can participate. No permission is required to use services as there'll be no party to impede access.Regulations affect access to public and private data, as well as the possibility of increased cybercrime.
Better transparency in data access and transactions. No middleman or intermediaries gaining profit from data or transactions.Adopting implementation necessitates additional steps and software, so education and training are required.
More efficient and personalised web experiences – with semantic web and customisations.Not yet integrated into modern browsers, therefore public access is currently limited.
Applications and websites would analyse users’ internet usage and offer customisations based on preference, device used, and location (among other factorisations).  Existing sites and applications will need to be aggressively upgraded to retain their market and clients if Web3 is to be fully implemented.

Web3 In Action: Now And The Future

Surprisingly, Web3 is already in action, and it’s gaining momentum too. Some of the sites and decentralised apps (dApps) are:

  1. Bitcoin – The pioneering cryptocurrency that has gained traction in past years.
  2. Diaspora – A non-profit, decentralised social platform.
  3. Sapien – A highly customisable, democratised social media platform built on the Ethereum blockchain.
  4. Steemit – An alternative to Reddit that allows users to monetise content via the Steem blockchain.
  5. OpenSea – A marketplace where you can trade NFTs.

Essentially, the decentralisation efforts of the Web that this next version offers are still ongoing, and here's what to expect if you use Web 3.0:

To summarise, the goal of Web3 implementation is to give users control over their data via a decentralised Web system. Along with that, many more Web3 processes, such as blockchains and cryptocurrencies, will emerge.

Living in a world where things are happening and operating digitally could very well be the way forward for us as Internet users. The day will come when everyone will be able to live, learn, work, and participate in the digital world. If you aren't, you're missing out!


If you work in a corporation, there’s a possibility that you hear your superiors talk about Six Sigma. In statistics, this term means the least chance of errors or defects in the manufacturing process. While its somewhat related in the business world, Six Sigma is actually more than that. More importantly, it could help you ascend the corporate ladder and increase your salary. If this has piqued your interest, read on!

A Brief History Of Six Sigma Certification, And What It Is

Six Sigma certification is the process of attaining industry-recognised certifications that declare an individual has competent knowledge and skills in using this method. Apart from being a process improvement methodology, this is also a set of management tools and techniques that focuses on catering to clients’ needs, on top of boosting a company’s earnings. This involves developing sustainable business strategies that raise efficiency, while also launching services and products that would not only better satisfy customers, but would also likely see strong market demand.

Motorola engineer Bill Smith is regarded as the ‘Father of Six Sigma’, along with statistician and co-founder Mikel Harry. They are credited for having first introduced Six Sigma to the corporate world, starting with Motorola in 1987. The system was quickly embraced by bluechip American businesses.

Among Six Sigma’s other early adopters were Honeywell and General Electric (GE). Back in 1995, when Jack Welch was GE’s Chief Executive, he made Six Sigma a major component of his business strategy. Then in 1998, the household appliance maker revealed that it had saved US$350 million thanks to Six Sigma, and the figure later surged to over US$1 billion. This astounding success helped spread the adoption of this methodology.

By the late 1990s, roughly 66% of the member companies of Fortune 500 had started utilising Six Sigma to slash business costs, as well as enhancing the quality of their products and services. Eventually, Motorola and GE crafted certification programs as part of their adoption of the methodology. Thereafter, many companies in the 1990s began offering Six Sigma certifications to their staff.

Why Is Six Sigma Crucial?

The time-tested set of tools and techniques is not only vital to a professional, but is also crucial to companies and businesses. At a glance, the table below shows the perks of Six Sigma:

Six Sigma’s Importance To Professionals

1) Makes you more appealing to various companies

One of the top personal perks of attaining Six Sigma certification is that it makes you more coveted by businesses. So, in case the company you’re currently working for closes, you can easily be recruited by another firm.  This is because certified professionals are highly sought-after by companies across different industries, as the methodology can be applied in any sector, be it finance, engineering, marketing, manufacturing, information technology (IT), human resources (HR), and many more.

2) Better career advancement prospects

Certified professionals are top talents wanted by companies, as such persons are adept in lots of different methods that can be used to improve business processes, cut expenses, and boost revenue. Apart from being an expert in assessing and measuring both qualitative and quantitative benefits of implementing any Six Sigma projects in a company, certified professionals have risk assessment and financial management skills that are usually requirements for mid- to high-level managerial positions.

3) Higher compensation

Given that certified professionals are highly coveted by companies and businesses, it’s not surprising that such individuals are among the world’s highest-paid professionals. As a matter of fact, data from SalaryExplorer shows that average wages of people who hold a Six Sigma Black Belt in Malaysia range from RM4,250 per month to RM13,500 per month.

Six Sigma’s Importance To Companies

1) Improves efficiency, productivity, and timeliness

Applying Six Sigma not only boosts efficiency and productivity, but it also allows companies to meet their commitments on time. For example, Allen Medical took advantage of this methodology to enhance the production rate of arm boards, which are used on surgery tables. Thanks to Six Sigma, they reduced the time spent making each arm board by 45 seconds on average, and increased the number of arm boards manufactured per hour, to more than 6 from 5.3 previously.

2) Reduces business costs and increases profits

By letting practitioners understand the different categories of waste and how it can be brought down, Six Sigma has been proven to help companies slash wastage and reduce unnecessary expenses. In fact, utilising Six Sigma helped Motorola save a whopping US$17 billion in 2005. By assisting companies in slashing expenses, such as the cost of high employee turnover, Six Sigma can help businesses improve their margins and increase their earnings.

3) Enhances services to clients and ensures regulatory compliance

Leveraging Six Sigma can enable companies to offer superior products and better services. This reduces the incidence of defects and unhappy customers. For example, Citibank was able to greatly increase customer satisfaction thanks to it.

Given that this methodology has very exacting standards, many vendors, procurers, and government agencies apply Six Sigma standards when assessing if a product or service passes their benchmarks. As such, applying this makes it easier for businesses to pass audits, such as those conducted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), as well as inspections carried out by government watchdogs.

Stages And Requirements Of Six Sigma Certification

Just like martial arts such as Judo, Karate, and Aikido, Six Sigma Certification uses a belt ranking system to show a person’s proficiency in using this methodology. In ascending order, these are White Belt, Yellow Belt, Green Belt, and Black Belt.

1) White Belt

This is the basic level of Six Sigma certification. This requires applicants to know its fundamental concepts, including DMAIC, which stands for Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve, and Control. White Belt holders are expected to be able to assist in projects and problem-solving assignments related to quality, as well as improve management. 

2) Yellow Belt

While this is recommended for entry-level staff, to obtain this rank you need more in-depth knowledge of Six Sigma and its tools, as well as learn to be a data-driven problem solver. As a Yellow Belt, you’re expected to be able to practically apply graphical techniques utilising statistical software, in addition to mastering over 40 Lean and Six Sigma Yellow Belt tools and techniques. You’re also expected to be proficient in creating a Six Sigma project storyboard, as well as start using root-cause analysis techniques like Fishbone Diagram, 5 Whys, and Brainstorming.

3) Green Belt

A holder of the Green Belt is someone who is highly skilled in the core to advanced elements of Six Sigma methodology, and they can easily solve actual business-related problems using the techniques. He/she is a professional who can already lead improvement projects, as well as serve as a team member of a more complicated improvement project that is led by a Certified Black Belt.

Before obtaining the Green Belt certification via the American Society for Quality (ASQ), you need to have at least 3 years of industry experience in one or more areas of Six Sigma Green Belt. Unlike the ASQ or the International Association for Six Sigma Certification (IASSC), the Council for Six Sigma Certification (CSSC) offers certification in two ways – namely the basic Six Sigma Green Belt certification, and Level 2 Green Belt Credential for the specialists who want to further hone their skills within this rank.

4) Black Belt

This is the highest rank, with Six Sigma Black Belt holders regarded as specialists and top innovators. Such professionals are proficient in helming project teams and overseeing Yellow and Green Belt members of the team. They have high responsibility and accountability as they manage the whole process lifecycle. Furthermore, the Black Belt holders can act as principal consultants to Six Sigma projects, and are regarded as top talents by companies.

The ASQ has the most stringent requirements for taking the exam for the Black Belt certification, as compared to other groups. With the ASQ, applicants are required to have completed two Six Sigma projects with an attached signed affirmation, or have finished one project with three years of industry experience with an attached signed affirmation. The IASSC has no prerequisites for the exam, likewise for CSSC. But the latter’s Black Belt certification comes in three different levels – Basic, Level 2, and Level 3.

Once an individual has received their Black Belt certification, they are qualified to take their exam for the Master Black Belt credential. ASQ and CSSC both have unique requirements for applicants to complete before they can take the exam. Meanwhile, the IASSC does not offer the Master Black Belt Certification.

Six Sigma Vs Lean Six Sigma

While Six Sigma focuses on mitigating variance in the manufacturing process and enhancing process output by adopting a problem-solving approach leveraging on statistical measurements, Lean Six Sigma’s priority lies in reducing errors, defects, and wastageon top of improving the operational workflow.

By themselves, they have limitations. For instance, Six Sigma can reduce errors and defects but it doesn’t tackle the problem of optimising workflow, whereas Lean Six Sigma doesn’t utilise advanced statistical techniques to expedite and streamline business operations or the manufacturing process. Given that each approach can already result in significant improvements, integrating both methodologies can lead to far greater benefits.

Earning Your Cert!

Earning Six Sigma certification is no easy feat. It requires dedication and hard work, especially if you’re aiming for a Yellow Belt credential or a higher rank. The exams are gruelling, and ascending from one belt level to a higher rank entails years of hard work and studying.

While being industrious can help, we advise applicants to access comprehensive resource materials and knowledge databases on this methodology, so they can pass the certification with flying colours.

In the end, your hard work will be worth it as Six Sigma-certified individuals are among the highest-paid professionals in the world. They are also so highly sought after to the point that rival companies usually attempt to acquire such talents by providing enticing offers so that the professionals will consider switching sides from competitors.


In this era of digital technology, the need for protection is essential to avoid scams, cyberattacks, malware, and more. Cybersecurity has always been in constant development to combat these digital attacks; and we should arm ourselves with the necessary certifications to ensure we're on top of our game.

This article aims to outline the basics of cybersecurity, and list the 5 must-have cyber security certifications to have. First off, there are two main categories, which will be briefly explained below:

1) Professional Cybersecurity Certifications

These are for professionals working in the field to get trained on some of the latest tools and software to detect, prevent, and combat against cyber threats. Think of them as training certifications for new or updated security certifications.

2) Academic Cybersecurity Certifications

These certifications are to aid students in the cybersecurity field as well as shed light on the current and foreseeable problems, solutions, and innovations which will give them a head start into their careers. Most students who create a portfolio with academic certifications tend to get ‘reserved’ for work, even before graduating!

Some companies use particular products, and so they might require their professional cybersecurity staff to be certified accordingly. Examples of professional certifications include:

  1. Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH)
  2. GIAC Security Essentials
  3. Certified Information Security Manager (CISM)
  4. Comp TIA Security+
  5. Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP)

How Does One Start?

Most aspiring professionals would start by obtaining the relevant academic requirements. Most cyber security vacancies require a four-year Bachelor’s Degree in Computer Science or Information Technology.

One should start their career from there, as well as pick up a few academic cyber security certifications to bolster their chances of getting a job as soon as they graduate. Increasingly, associate’s and bachelor’s cybersecurity programs are offering professional certification preparation as part of the course load. 

For example, Hossein Sarrafzadeh, a professor of cybersecurity and department chair of the cybersecurity department at Saint Bonaventure University, had this to say during a recent expert interview with Cybersecurity Guide:

“We’ve embedded a lot of industry certification materials into our curriculum…Students are encouraged to pursue industry certification, and get industry certified while doing their academic work.”

Roles And Responsibilities Of A Cybersecurity Professional

The right industry cybersecurity certifications will open up doors in a plethora of fields such as banks, network providers, schools and universities, airlines, security consultancy firms, and almost any large organisation or corporation with a database. 

The aforementioned industry certifications serve as an indicator to potential employers that one is capable to fulfil the various roles and responsibilities related to the vacancy. Some of the duties which a cybersecurity professional would be tasked with include:

  1. Looking for potential vulnerability and security threats in hardware and software.
  2. Addressing and closing off security vulnerabilities if they are discovered.
  3. Finding the best way to secure the IT infrastructure of an organisation.
  4. Building firewalls into network infrastructures.
  5. Constantly monitoring for attacks or intrusions and liaising with the authorities if a perpetrator is identified.

Here Are The Top 5 Must-Have Cybersecurity Certifications!

There's a vast multitude of cybersecurity certification courses available to prospective cybersecurity professionals, and it can quite quickly become overwhelming to anyone just looking to get started in the field! But fret not, we have compiled a list of our top 5 suggested cybersecurity certification must-haves.

1) Certified Ethical Hacking (CEH)

This may sound like a job straight out of 'Mission Impossible', but we can assure you that it's a very real profession with a very real demand worldwide! As implied in the title, this certification essentially teaches one to think and act like a hacker, with the goal of teaching hacking techniques such as identifying vulnerabilities and weak points, as well as initiating actions to prevent, correct, and protect the system from potential illegal hacking threats. 

Other skills include scanning networks, viruses and worms, session hijacking, penetration testing, trojans and backdoors, SQL injection, evading firewalls, and cryptography. This certification is mainly beneficial to security professionals, site administrators, auditors and anyone in the network security sphere. 

You can sign up for Certified Ethical Hacking (CEH) certification here.

2) GIAC Security Essentials

While this is still an entry-level certification, it does require five years of work experience before one can obtain it and is best suited for professionals who prefer a more hand-on security role. Among the many technical skills associated with the GIAC Security Essentials certification include identifying and preventing wireless attacks, access controls, authentication, DNS, cryptography fundamentals, critical public infrastructure, network mapping and network protocols.

Holders of the GIAC Security Essentials certification are required to renew their certification every four years as to ensure the aforementioned skills are still intact and, more importantly, up to date and keeping up with the advances of technology and security threats. 

You can sign up for GIAC Security Essentials certification here.

3) Certified Information Security Manager (CISM)

CISM is among the top credentials for cybersecurity professionals in organisation security practice development. With credibility also comes the catch of having five years of cybersecurity experience before being eligible for the certification. However, one can also use a combination of education and experience as a substitute for this requirement. CISM covers security risk management, program development and management, governance, incident management and response, among other skills.

Much like the previous certification, CISM is valid for 3 years and holders have to pay an annual maintenance fee for the certification. 

You can sign up for Certified Information Security Manager certification here.

4) Comp TIA Security+

Comp TIA Security+ is a general level certification and is a minimum requirement and preference of the cybersecurity industry. It takes two years to complete the certification and is a must-have for those interested in having a career in the cybersecurity field. 

Some of the skills covered in Comp TIA Security+ include network threats and defense techniques, effective security policies, network and host-based security practices, disaster recovery, encryption standards and products.

You can sign up for Comp TIA Security+ here.

5) Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP)

Similar to Comp TIA Security+, many organisations and corporations consider Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) to be an essential requirement in the field of cybersecurity. Skills covered in Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) include access control, cryptography, telecommunications, networking.

Three to five years of prior cybersecurity experience is required to obtain this certification, but once completed, it serves as one of the best knowledge assets to have in cybersecurity. 

You can sign up for Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) here.

So Which Certification To Choose?

Choosing the right certification can be tricky, but a good rule of thumb is to decide beforehand the kind of industry one wants to work in as well as one’s existing skillset. While all these certifications will almost certainly expand one’s current skillset, it is also important to select a certification in which one’s established skills can be utilised and further improved upon. 

Another consideration should also be one’s own personal interest in the various aspects of cybersecurity as it can act as a guide to the right certification for each individual.

Cyber Security FAQs

1) How many hours do cyber security professionals work?

Most cybersecurity professionals work regular office hours, five days a week.

2) How much do cyber security jobs pay?

Entry-level cybersecurity professionals earn around S$27k a year, while senior cybersecurity professionals earn up to S$335k a year. 

3) Is there a demand for cybersecurity jobs in Singapore?

There's currently not enough supply to match this demand for such a wide range of cybersecurity staff in Singapore. According to a study by CyberSecurity Ventures, there will be a deficit of 3.5 million cyber security professionals in the world and with Singapore already reporting a shortage of cyber security talents.

4) Is a cyber security career a good choice?

With the easy access to education and certifications the good pay and work culture, and the demand from organisations, the answer is a resounding YES! Cybersecurity would be an excellent career field to pursue for many individuals.

Long Story Short!

The certifications recommended above are a great way to expand one’s abilities and qualifications, but it goes without saying that if an individual wants to become of the best cybersecurity professionals in the field, these five certifications are a must have. They should serve as a stepping stone for further development in the field of cybersecurity. 

Much like how technology is rapidly improving every single moment, the potential cybersecurity threats are also evolving just as quickly. Therefore, to be an elite cybersecurity professional, one must constantly be improving their existing skillset in order to be able to protect against all manner of digital attacks.


The Python certification is a kind of training course that helps you master the concepts of the programming language. 

This type of certification lets your employer know that you’ve been through intense and in-depth learning, which in turn, allows them to provide you with an opportunity to work with a Python-related programme.  

You might be thinking, ‘Why would an employer give a chance to someone with a Python certification, and not with an IT degree?” Well, that’s because you’ll be working on real-world projects and case studies as part of the overall certification courses! 

Why Is Python Certification Important, And To Whom?

It doesn’t matter if you’re from software engineering, web scraping and automation, web development, data science, or machine learning; you would know that the Python language is one of the most relevant and important languages in the programming industries.

Being one of the most functional programming languages, this is only second to JavaScript when it comes to popularity among all the coders. Due to its versatility and a vast set of frameworks that come with it, mastering this language will definitely help develop your programmer skill sets and land you high-paying jobs.

Where Can You Go To Get Yours?

There are a few places where you can get this coveted certificate, namely, Microsoft and Python Institute. While most of us know just how big of a name Microsoft and its credentials are, let’s move on to Python Institute. 

Aside from Microsoft, the Python Institute is probably one of the best places for you to get your certification. In collaboration with Pearson VUE, and set up by Open Education and Development Group (OpenEDG), they promise a range of courses and certifications that equip programmers with various skill sets and concepts regarding the language. 

What Are The Top 5 Python Certifications Available?

1) PCEP – Certified Entry-Level Python Programmer

Think of PCEP certification as the first step to building your credentials! This entry-level course helps learners to gain all the fundamental knowledge one needs before proceeding to an intermediate level course. 

The details of the exam are as below:

  1. Name: Certified Entry-Level Python Programmer
  2. Code: PCEP-30-01
  3. Duration: 45 minutes for the examination + 5 minutes for non-disclosure agreement and tutorial
  4. Language: English
  5. Level: Entry
  6. Passing percentage: 70%
  7. Prerequisites: None
  8. Price: $59
  9. Total questions: 30
  10. Type of questions: Drag and drop, gap fill, single-choice, and multiple-choice questions
  11. Syllabus:
2) PCAP – Certified Associate in Python Programming

The PCAP certification helps learners to be familiarised with the Python language in general, before proceeding to an advanced programming course and being a competent coder/developer. 

Following this course, candidates are able to build confidence in using the language, and help them understand the fundamental notions and techniques employed for object-oriented programming. 

The details of the exam are as below:

  1. Name: Certified Associate in Python Programmer
  2. Code: PCAP-31-02
  3. Duration: 65 minutes for the examination + 10 minutes for non-disclosure agreement and tutorial
  4. Language: English
  5. Level: Associate
  6. Passing percentage: 70%
  7. Prerequisites: None
  8. Price: $295
  9. Total questions: 40
  10. Type of questions: Single-choice and multiple-choice questions
  11. Syllabus
3) PCPP-1 – Certified Professional in Python Programming 1

The PCPP certification is considered the highest level course offered by the Python Institute. This certification is split into two, namely PCPP-1 and PCPP-2. As learners go through these courses, they’ll be able to accomplish programming tasks related to advanced-level coding using the Python language. 

Upon completing PCPP1, the learner will be proven to have the credential equivalent of an advanced Python developer worldwide. 

The details of the exam are as below:

  1. Name: Certified Professional in Python Programming 1
  2. Code: PCPP-32-101
  3. Duration: 65 minutes for the examination + 10 minutes for non-disclosure agreement and tutorial
  4. Language: English
  5. Level: Professional
  6. Passing percentage: 70%
  7. Prerequisites: PCAP – Certified Associate in Python Programming
  8. Price: $195
  9. Total questions: 40
  10. Type of questions: Drag and drop, gap fill, single-choice, and multiple-choice questions
  11. Syllabus
4) PCPP-2 – Certified Professional in Python Programming 2

Individuals certified with a PCPP2 are considered to have acquired the highest level of expertise in the language and are recognised as professional programmers/developers. 

With the credentials of a PCPP2 certificate, the candidates are expected to be able to automate processes using Python and create tools, systems, and frameworks using Python and related technologies. 

The details of the exam are as below:

  1. Name: Certified Professional in Python Programming 2
  2. Code: PCPP-32-201
  3. Duration: 65 minutes for the examination + 10 minutes for non-disclosure agreement and tutorial
  4. Language: English
  5. Level: Professional
  6. Passing percentage: 70%
  7. Prerequisites: PCPP1 – Certified Professional in Python Programming 1
  8. Price: $195
  9. Total questions: 40
  10. Type of questions: Drag and drop, gap fill, single-choice, and multiple-choice questions
  11. Syllabus
5) Microsoft Python Certification Exam (98-381)

As suggested by the name, the Microsoft Python Certification Exam (also known as Microsoft Technology Associate 98-381: Introduction to Programming Using Python) is issued by one of the largest tech companies in the world. Upon the completion of this course, learners will also be awarded the Microsoft Technical Associate (MTA) credential

The MTA 98-391 is recognised worldwide by professional programmers and companies, as the course covers the general purpose of Python programming language, and related technologies. 

The details of the exam are as below:

  1. Name: Introduction to Programming Using Python
  2. Code: 98-381
  3. Duration: 45 minutes
  4. Language: English, Chinese (Simplified), Chinese (Traditional), Japanese, Korean, French, German, Spanish, Portuguese (Brazil)
  5. Level: Associate
  6. Passing percentage: 70%
  7. Prerequisites: 100+ hours of instruction/hands-on experience related to the Python language and familiar with Python’s features, such as the ability to write, understand, debug, and maintain the Python code
  8. Price: $127
  9. Total questions: 40
  10. Type of questions: Drag and drop, gap fill, single-choice, and multiple-choice questions
  11. Syllabus

Now that we’ve covered the available courses in full detail, we’ve compiled the key information into a handy table below for your easy reference too!

How To Prepare For The Exam/Certification?

It doesn’t matter if you’re a novice, an associate, or even an expert in the field of programming; we understand that it can be nerve-wracking when we’re to sit for an examination. And that’s completely normal! Who wouldn’t be nervous to sit for a final? 

No worries, we’re here to give you some tips and tricks. For starters, there are tonnes of books out there that are good for learning Python, even when you have no prior experience using the language, namely, ‘Starting Out with Python, ‘Python for Everybody’, and ‘Learn Python the Hard Way’. And in case there’s any term that’s hard to understand, there’ll always be videos on YouTube to guide you through the problems. 

There are also many practice tests online, where they prep you with the most important and hot questions for these Python certifications. Doing them is crucial because you’ll probably come across some similar ones, and you get to apply the concepts multiple times before going for the actual exam!

Make Full Use of Your Certificate!

Having good credentials by owning the Python certificate is definitely crucial to becoming a successful programmer/developer. However, even though you’re now fluent in the language, it’s still important to have some experience in the related field. 

This is why you should make use of your time and skills acquired from this certification to create a project portfolio. Showing what you’ve learned and how you applied these skills to a project will impress employers of your ability as a capable programmer/developer!


To learn something new or to advance an already existing skill has never been as easy as it has been in the last few years. E-learning has taken the world by storm and has become the preferred method of learning regardless of age. 

There is no doubt that the rise in popularity of e-learning is due to convenience, simplicity, being budget-friendly, and a fun way to learn. There's so much control given to the student, in terms of the topic, type of lessons and resources, schedule and pace of learning. These are also contributing factors to keeping learners highly motivated, with the bonus of it being time flexible. 

Why Should Professionals Consider e-Learning? 

To stay at the top of their game, and be able to participate in every opportunity possible, professionals need to keep their skills set sharp to compete and stay desirable in the talent pool. 

E-learning works just as well for professionals as it does for anyone else. The fact that it is convenient means that any online learning course can be made to fit into the busy schedules of the most desirable professional. The simplicity aspect of it is in regards to the quick and almost intuitive way to learn that won’t frustrate even those that are inexperienced with e-learning. 

The content and resources are readily available at a budget-friendly price. Professionals at any point in their careers will be able to join an e-learning platform or online course because of this financial accessibility. The fact that e-learning can be fun and just as interactive is a bonus that will help professionals navigate resources to gain new skills. 

All of these benefits to e-learning also make it easier for employers that want to help their team to level up their skills for the betterment of the company. Instead of dealing with the difficulty of managing training schedules, employers can opt to get their employees memberships to e-learning platforms or access certain courses. 

Both professionals and their employers only stand to grow and go further with e-learning. 

Why Do Tech Professionals Need To Stay Up-To-Date?

Staying relevant is key in an industry that is continuously developing. Tech professionals need to ensure that they stay desirable in the market by keeping their skill set up-to-date on the newest, most preferable and beneficial skills. These skills and the ability to keep learning will help build credibility and value throughout their career.

It’s no secret that keeping skills up-to-date can be challenging to do, especially when you’re a tech professional. It is almost impossible for a single working tech professional to keep up with the fast-moving changes that happen in the international tech world. 

There is an obvious gap in the pace that tech is moving and the number of skilled workers that can fill those positions. Trying to learn everything might not be the best way to land those roles. The best course of action is to narrow down, pick an area of tech expertise that is of interest to you, and develop skills to that accordingly. There is less pressure placed on tech talent this way but still spotlights them as desirable for their skills in their tech field of expertise.

GRIT Community And GRIT Smarts 

There’s nowhere else that understands the importance of e-learning, industry news and peer discussions to a tech career like the career developing platform GRIT Community. Created to provide a safe space for professionals to converse with peers and develop deeper insights into the on-going  issues that the tech industry-related faces. It is free to join and supports tech and digital professionals with an array of career developing resources.

The GRIT Community membership offers free skills gap analysis to help professionals pinpoint what skills are needed to advance their careers further in the direction they want. It’s an essential tool that can provide professionals in tech with a better understanding of what skills are required in order to move up the career ladder. Members also receive a detailed and personalised report with the specific steps to developing those skills. 

By far the most beneficial tool and resource offered by the GRIT Community is GRIT Smarts. Members of the GRIT Community can also opt for a 2-week free trial. This is an e-learning platform that houses over +100,000 industry-focused online courses and resources for only $6.00USD/month (1-year minimum), one of the most affordable e-learning platforms available right now.

Choose as many from over 20 content pillars of topics that are tailored to your learning interests. This way you can find what’s relevant to you from the thousands of courses and resources available. 

Gain a head start before everyone else with insights into the digital transformation for tech leaders or business strategy for the post-pandemic economy. Dive deep into everything content marketing and SEO with CreativeLive or learn to code python with the Microsoft team. 

Notable Content Creators & Resources For Tech Professionals

To make things even easier, courses are bundled up into specific areas of skill development, such as business development and innovation, software engineering and finance to name a few. In each area of skill development, the courses navigate you from the basics to the expert and industry level skills. Difficulty levels for all courses will vary, so it’s best to work your way up with a specific content creator that speaks to your learning style. 

You also earn rewards as you complete each area of skill development in any topic and gain confidence in your newly developed skills. These rewards come in terms of badges to mark your progress along your e-learning journey. 

Tech professionals of all levels now have the opportunity to fill in their skill set with simple-to-navigate and convenient e-learning courses. Career advancement has never been easier!


ScrumMaster Certification is an emerging and trending certification that can be useful for many different careers such as Product Owner, Product Manager, Technical Lead, and many more. There are a few factors to consider when choosing the right ScrumMaster certificate, such as your career path or job role. This post will help you understand what ScrumMaster certifications are available, how they shape skill sets and the benefits of each one!

What Is Scrum Master Certification?

A Scrum Master is a role that acts as a "servant leader" to the larger team. They are expected to help create an environment of trust, honesty, and transparency within their teams through facilitation, coaching, collaboration skills, as well as conflict resolution tools and techniques. As well as being nimble enough to adapt to changes in technology or work environments quickly.

Scrum master certification allows professionals within technology and project management roles a way into furthering their education without having to spend years in school studying human behaviour and conflict resolution skills. The educational programs provide hands-on experience with real world scenarios where students learn necessary facilitation tools and techniques used by industry experts every day. Additionally, the classes cover information on managing remote teams/employees and how to adapt and apply changes in technology.

There are several ScrumMaster certification options available, which can be confusing for those entering the field or wanting to advance their careers. This post will help you understand what Scrum Master certifications are available and how they shape skill sets in order to make an informed decision when choosing a ScrumMaster certificate that is right for your career path.

What Are The Different Providers Of Scrum Master Certification?

There are five reputable providers of Scrum Master certifications available:

  1. Certified Scrum Master (CSM) from Scrum Alliance
  2. Professional Scrum Master (PSM) from Scrum.org
  3. Certified Scrum Master (CSM) Scrum Inc
  4. PMI-ACP certification from Project Management Institute (PMI)
  5. Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) certification from Scaled Agile
1) Certified Scrum Master (CSM) from Scrum Alliance

This certification is aimed at professionals that want to learn the requirements of a Scrum Master and how they can apply it in their current roles. In order to receive this certification, you must complete a course with one of the many Scrum Alliance certified instructors. The class is highly interactive and provides real world examples on how teams can integrate Scrum into their work environment. 

2) Professional Scrum Master (PSM) from Scrum.org

The Professional Scrum Master (PSM) certificate program is designed for experienced Agile practitioners who are already familiar with concepts such as agile practices, product backlogs, iterations and scrum ceremonies. This program will provide you with tools and techniques necessary for managing complex projects using Scrum in real-world environments where business needs often change rapidly or do not exist until just prior to launch. Additionally this course provides an overview of the role and responsibilities of a Product Owner when working on agile teams along with having extensive knowledge around team dynamics. This is an excellent course for those who are looking to advance their careers with the focus of becoming Scrum Masters.

3) Certified Scrum Master (CSM) from Scrum Inc

This certification focuses on preparing professionals to be effective product owners and team members in a business environment where they will work closely with project managers, leadership teams and executive stakeholders. The program provides scrum masters extensive training around techniques that can help them successfully manage multiple projects within fast-paced organisations or multi-disciplinary teams which may include developers, UX designers, testers and more. This class offers deep coverage into topics such as scaling agile software development practices across large enterprises while teaching students how to apply lean thinking principles when working on complex products/projects using Agile methodologies and Scrum.

4) Certified Scrum Master (CSM) from PMI

The PMI-ACP® certification from Project Management Institute (PMI) certifies individuals in their knowledge and application of agile principles, practices and values when working on projects/initiatives. The program focuses on Agile frameworks and Scrum methodologies while providing students with extensive training around topics such as understanding how teams operate within an agile environment, managing priorities effectively using backlogs along with gaining insight into team dynamics which are essential for being successful in any role or career path involving Agile development. This course provides in depth guidance regarding how to build effective partnerships between business stakeholders and cross functional teams composed of product owners, scrum masters etc., so they can all contribute to the success of your Agile project.

5) Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) certification from Scaled Agile

SAFe certification is designed for experienced project managers who are seeking to improve their existing knowledge of Agile. This course will provide you with advanced concepts required to support complex projects using SAFe framework along with gaining an understanding about how Lean-Agile principles can help organisations achieve maximum efficiency within the software development lifecycle (SDLC). Subjects covered include managing portfolios, teams and releases while teaching students how to reduce waste and manage risks throughout the project life cycle. 

What Are The Anticipated Benefits Of Earning This Certificate?

1) Acquire and effectively use Scrum

Obtaining scrum knowledge can help you effectively manage big teams across several departments, better manage product deliverability, and increate employee morale. 

2) Gain recognition and get ahead in your career

A certification can help you get a promotion or a better job. Some jobs mandate Scrum certification; others are simply more marketable with it. The IT field is highly competitive, and having a formal qualification proves that you have the skills employers want. When applying for jobs, especially in larger companies, it is expected that you will have some form of formal training. The Certified Scrum Master credential recognises your employees' confidence in you to lead an agile team effectively.

What Is The Certified Scrum Master Career Path?

CSM jobs are in demand, and the CSM certification is one of the fastest-growing IT certifications available. If you're already working as a Scrum Master or planning to take that direction, then this certification can help advance your career – and it's also an excellent choice for those who are just starting out in the industry. Having achieved Scrum Master certification opens up doors to more senior roles such as Sr. Scrum Associate, Scrum Master, Sr. Scrum Master, Agile Coach, Scrum Trainer, Agile Leader and others. 

In addition to earning a credential, those who earn Scrum certifications will grow in the following ways:

How Does A Team Benefit From Scrum Master?

There are several benefits that an organisation receives when they hire a Scrum Master. The three major ones are:

  1. Increase the productivity of the team by having someone who is constantly looking for ways to improve; i.e., increasing quality decreases time it takes to perform tasks etc.
  2. Having one person in charge instead of multiple people in charge helps make decision making less complicated. A team can simply ask the Scrum Master who is in charge of the specific area that pertains to their question instead of wasting time.
  3. Team members will be more engaged with having one person responsible for certain tasks; i.e., if a scrum master sees that some team members are not performing at 100% on all tasks, he can then address the specific team member to increase their productivity.

Get Your Scrum Master Certification

The Scrum Master certification is a great way to increase your knowledge and skills if you are in the product and development role. Earning this credential will allow you to take on more senior roles within organisations that are looking for someone with these qualifications. Scrum Master certification can help you get a promotion or a better job. This certification proves that you can lead an agile team effectively by producing effective products. The Certified Scrum Master credential recognises your employees' confidence in you to lead an agile team effectively.


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